paranoia n : a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur
A psychotic disorder characterized by delusions of persecution
Extreme, irrational distrust of others
Paranoia is a disturbed thought process characterized by excessive anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion. Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs concerning a perceived threat. In the original Greek, παράνοια (paranoia) simply means madness (para = outside; nous = mind) and, historically, this characterization was used to describe any delusional state.
Sometimes in common usage, the term paranoia is misused to describe a phobia. For example, a person may not want to fly out of fear the plane may crash. This does not in itself indicate paranoia, but rather a phobia. The lack of blame in this case usually points to the latter. Paranoia, however, would be fear that the pilot is an alcoholic with no evidence to suggest such, and would crash the plane as a result of this.
Use in psychiatryMore recently, the clinical use of the term has been used to describe delusions where the affected person believes he is being persecuted. Specifically, they have been defined as containing two central elements:
- The individual thinks that harm is occurring, or is going to occur, to him or her.
- The individual thinks that the persecutor has the intention to cause harm.
Paranoia is often associated with psychotic illnesses, sometimes schizophrenia, although attenuated features may be present in other primarily non-psychotic diagnoses, such as paranoid personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Paranoia can also be a side effect of medication or recreational drugs such as marijuana and particularly stimulants such as methamphetamine and crack cocaine.
In the unrestricted use of the term, common paranoid delusions can include the belief that the person is being followed, poisoned or loved at a distance (often by a media figure or important person, a delusion known as erotomania or de Clerambault syndrome).
Other common paranoid delusions include the belief that the person has an imaginary disease or parasitic infection (delusional parasitosis); that the person is on a special quest or has been chosen by God; that the person has had thoughts inserted or removed from conscious thought; or that the person's actions are being controlled by an external force.
Therefore, in common usage, the term paranoid addresses a range of mental conditions, assumed by the use of the term to be of psychiatric origin, in which the subject is seen to generalise or project fears and anxieties onto the external world, particularly in the form of organised behaviour focused on them. The syndrome is applied equally to powerful people like executives obsessed with takeover bids or political leaders convinced of plots against them, and to common people who believe for instance that shadowy agencies are operating against them.
The term paranoia was used to describe a mental illness in which a delusional belief is the sole or most prominent feature. In his original attempt at classifying different forms of mental illness, Kraepelin used the term pure paranoia to describe a condition where a delusion was present, but without any apparent deterioration in intellectual abilities and without any of the other features of dementia praecox, the condition later renamed schizophrenia. Notably, in his definition, the belief does not have to be persecutory to be classified as paranoid, so any number of delusional beliefs can be classified as paranoia. For example, a person who has the sole delusional belief that he is an important religious figure would be classified by Kraepelin as having 'pure paranoia'.
- Farrell, John. Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau (Cornell University Press, 2006).
- Freeman, D. & Garety, P.A. (2004) Paranoia: The Psychology of Persecutory Delusions. Hove: Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-522-X
- Igmade (Stephan Trüby et al, eds.), 5 Codes: Architecture, Paranoia and Risk in Times of Terror", Birkhäuser 2006. ISBN 3-7643-7598-1
- Kantor, Martin. (2004) Understanding Paranoia: A Guide for Professionals, Families, and Sufferers. Westport: Praeger Press. ISBN 0-275-98152-5
- Munro, A. (1999) Delusional disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58180-X
- Sims, A. (2002) Symptoms in the mind: An introduction to descriptive psychopathology (3rd edition). Edinburgh: Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1
- Siegel, Ronald K. (1994) Whispers: The Voices of Paranoia. New York: Crown.
paranoia in Bulgarian: Параноя
paranoia in Catalan: Paranoia
paranoia in Czech: Paranoia
paranoia in Danish: Paranoid psykose
paranoia in German: Paranoia
paranoia in Spanish: Paranoia
paranoia in Esperanto: Paranojo
paranoia in Persian: پارانویا
paranoia in French: Paranoïa
paranoia in Irish: Paranóia
paranoia in Indonesian: Paranoia
paranoia in Icelandic: Vænisýki
paranoia in Italian: Paranoia
paranoia in Hebrew: פראנויה
paranoia in Lithuanian: Paranoja
paranoia in Hungarian: Paranoia
paranoia in Dutch: Paranoia
paranoia in Japanese: 偏執病
paranoia in Norwegian: Paranoia
paranoia in Occitan (post 1500): Paranòia
paranoia in Polish: Zespół paranoiczny
paranoia in Portuguese: Paranóia
paranoia in Russian: Паранойя
paranoia in Simple English: Paranoia
paranoia in Slovak: Paranoja
paranoia in Serbian: Параноја
paranoia in Finnish: Vainoharhaisuus
paranoia in Swedish: Paranoia
paranoia in Turkish: Paranoya
paranoia in Ukrainian: Параноя
paranoia in Chinese: 偏執狂
alternating personality, brain disease, catatonia, catatonic schizophrenia, crack-up, dementia praecox, depersonalization, disconnection, dissociation, dissociation of personality, double personality, dual personality, emotional disorder, emotional dissociation, emotional instability, functional nervous disorder, hebephrenia, hebephrenic schizophrenia, insanity, maladjustment, manic-depressive psychosis, melancholia, mental disorder, mental dissociation, mental illness, multiple personality, nervous breakdown, nervous disorder, neurosis, paranoid personality, paranoid psychosis, paraphrenia, personality disorder, personality disorganization, problems in living, psychosis, reaction, schizoid personality, schizoidism, schizophrenia, schizothymia, social maladjustment, split personality